Large carnivores are among the most difficult species to conserve because of the threat they pose to people and livestock, the large areas they need to survive and because the majority of them are elusive and difficult to survey. They rely on good prey populations and their food is also valued by people as bushmeat. The need for practical, locally-generated and supported solutions has never been more urgent. Carnivore populations continue to decline inexorably across the world. We are working to reduce all threats to lions and other carnivores in Niassa Special Reserve (NSR), with a particular focus on snaring, retaliatory killing, disease (mainly from domestic dogs), poisoning and sport hunting of under age male lions and leopards. There is an increasing trade in lion bones, and trinkets (teeth and claws) that is of major concern.